Miyerkules, Hulyo 6, 2011

Animal and Plant Toxin

                Before giving you information about animal and plant toxin, I will define to you the word toxin. Toxin is a substance from a living cells of an organism that is poisonous that can make a bad reaction inside and out of the body and could kill the lives of many people if it had been ignored. And according to Miriam Webster Dictionary (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/toxin), they defined the word toxin as "a poisonous substance that is a specific product of the metabolic activities of a living organism and is usually very unstable, notably toxic when introduced into the tissues, and typically capable of inducing antibody formation."



       

Animal toxin
          
               -a toxin that, of course, found in many different types of animals that having a bacterial substance or fluid that is poisonous and resembling in its antigenic properties. There are many different animal toxins that can be classified. And as stated in Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation, the different classes are written at the table below:

C A R D I O A C T I V E   T O X I N S
Cardiotoxins/
cytotoxins
Act on membrane lipids/proteins of blood cells or heart cells
cobras, scorpions
Digoxin-like
Cardiotonic steroids that produce severe arrythmia of heartbeat
toads

H E M O T O X I N S
Protease inhibitors
Blockage of serine proteases including plasmin, thrombin and kallikrein resulting in anticoagulant activity or hypotension
Snakes (elapids and true vipers) and certain scorpion species. Leeches contain the most powerful antithrombin toxin known
Factor X activator
Prematurely activates factor X of the blood coagulation resulting in net anticoagulation
Viper and elapid venoms
Protein C activators
Premature activation of protein C in the coagulation cascade resulting in net anticoagulation
Vipers and colubrids
Prothrombin activators
Premature activation of prothrombin in the coagulation cascade resulting in net anticoagulation
Elapid venoms
Disintegrins
Anticoagulants that bind to GPIIb/IIIa receptor on platelets
Wide spread in viper venoms and also found in leech toxins
Proteases
Myriad of actions including conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and kallikrein like actions.
Pit-viper venoms, gila monster venoms
PLA2s
Hemorrhagic
PLA2s with a myriad of activities are scattered widely throughout venoms

M Y O T O X I N S
Myotoxins
Small proteins that facilitate the destruction of muscle cells
Pit-vipers
PLA2
Destruction of muscle cells
PLA2s with a myriad of activities are scattered widely throughout venoms
T1 and T2,
Lethal mytoxins that produce muscular contractions
Chironex fleckeri (sea wasp)

N E U R O T O X I N S
alpha-neurotoxins
Postsynaptic neurotoxins that block the acetylcholine receptor (neuromuscular)
Elapid venoms only in snakes, also found in spiders and cone snails
alpha-toxin (scorpion)
Presynaptic neurotoxins that act upon sodium channels of mammals
Scorpions
beta-toxin (scorpion)
Presynaptic neurotoxins that act upon sodium channels of mammals
Scorpions
Conatokins
inhibitiors of N-methyl-D- aspartate (NMDA) receptors resulting in an inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated calcium influx in central nervous system neurons
Cone snails
Fasiculins
Acetylcholinesterase
Dendroaspis (mamba) species
kappa-neurotoxins
Postsynaptic neurotoxins that block the acetylcholine receptors (neuronal)
Elapid venoms only
Long and short neurotoxins
Postsynaptic neurotoxins that block the acetylcholine receptors
Elapid venoms only in snakes
mu-toxins
Directly abolish muscle action potentials through the inhibition of muscle sodium channels
spider and cone snail
omega-neurotoxins
Prevent voltage-activated entry of calcium into the nerve terminal and release of acetylcholine
cone snails and spiders
PLA2s
Presynaptic destruction of nerve cell
PLA2s are widespread in venoms
P3
High molecular weight toxins from Physalia physalis (portugese man o'war) that reversibly blocks glutamate receptors which are integral parts of the nerve conductance system
Portugues man o'war
Tetrodotoxin-like
acute respiratory failure through paralysis of the respiratory musculature with death as a result
Blue-ringed octopi, poison dart frogs, pufferfish

V A S O A C T I V E
Sarafotoxins
Vasoconstrictors
Mole vipers (Atractaspidae) only
Natriuretic peptides
Hypotensive peptides
Platypus, elapid and pit viper venoms
CrTX -I, -II, -III
Induce platelet aggregation and act as vasoconstrictors in addition to damaging the uptake/storage of nor-adrenaline, yet leaving the postsynaptic contractile systems unchanged, while causing contraction of smooth muscles through the Ca2+ independent release of prostaglandins
Carybdea rastoni ("jimble")



                As an example, I'm giving you the list of "10 Most Poisonous Animals in the World" by Village Joy that published last October 10 2008.

      1.Box Jellyfish

 Click the image for description
      2.King Cobra

Click the image for description
      3.Marbled Cone Snail

Click the image for description
      4. Blue-Ringed Octopus

 
Click the image for description
        5. Death Stalker Scorpion

  Click the image for description
         6.Stone Fish
   Click the image for description

         7.The Brazilian Wandering Spider
 Click the image for description
           8.Inland Taipan           

  Click the image for description
           9. Poison Dart Frog

 Click the image for description
           10. Puffer Fish


 Click the image for description


Plant Toxin

     - a substance that is toxic and found on all plants that has a similar properties with the extracellular bacterial toxin. Just ONE TOUCH of any plants that having poison, you can be poisoned and killed. "BE CAREFUL of what plant you want to have at homes!"

 Example:
    1. Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)

              - it is the common and well-known plant toxin that existing in our world. According to http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/pages/poisonous-plants.htm: "It can grow as a groundcover or as a "hairy" vine climbing up the bark of trees". 

              - And when you touch this plant or have a skin contact, it causes immediately allergic reactions having red spots and blisters.




     2. Rosary pea
           
               - it is found on tropical areas of the world. It is used as a herbal medicines, and in economic industry, it has been used for making a beaded-jewelry. It is composed of a substance called Abrin that when it was chewed and swallowed can cause poison to our body. But this Abrin can also be use for medical situations because it can kill cancer cells.


       3.Water Hemlock

                     - it is kind of plat having a toxic substance called Cicutoxin, that when it was ingested within 60 minutes it causes nausea, emesis and abdominal pain that can lead to tremors, seizures, and even death.






FIRST AID..!
    by Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation
 
Dos, or Suggested Actions 
1. Removing the poison from the entry. It is not always possible but you can do the following:  
   1.1. Skin contamination 

  • Wipe the affected area gently and precociously with a cotton dress or a cotton wool ( make away with the contaminated materials after the procedure to avoid further poisonings)
  • Rinse with fresh water (or sea water in some marine animal poisonings)
  • Carefully remove the clothes of the victim for a danger of  still remaining  poisonous agents

   1.2. Eyes’ contamination- wash with fresh water carefully and dry gently. 
   1.3. Indigestion- provoke vomiting if the victim is conscious and without seizures or bleeding from the digestion system 
   1.4. Inhalation of the poison- take out the affected person from the toxic area to fresh air 
2. Restriction of the poison dissemination in bites/ stings 
   2.1. Splint the affected limb 
   2.2. Hold the affected limb in horizontal position (on the heart level) 
   2.3. Tighten the affected limb with a tourniquet or a compression bandage above the bitten/ stung place (This method is advisable mostly for poisonings of insects, arachnids and marine animals. Although it was widely used also for snake bites for many years, recently it was rejected because of the risks of severe limb damage) 
3. Give lots of water or other drinks (NO ALCOHOL) to the victim if possible.  
4. If necessary, apply cardiopulmonary resuscitation- maintaining adequate breathing and heart activity (indirect heart massage)  
5. In people known to have allergy, use his/her own antiallergenic pack if prescribed by a physician (commercially available in many countries) 
 

Don'ts, or What to Avoid 
1. Do not do anything except for the first aid recommendations  
2. Do not apply any kind of potentially harmful herbal and folk remedies 
3. Don’t treat the bitten place with anything but water (sea water if necessary) 
4. In case of a snake bite:

  • No ice 
  • No tourniquets or compression bandages 
  • No mouth, vacuum pump or syringe suction

 Related Topics:
   


Reference:
http://villageofjoy.com/10-most-poisonous-animals-in-the-world/



   






       

Lunes, Hunyo 13, 2011

Anterior Pituitary Hormone

  
What? What? What is Pituitary Gland?

It is what we called the “master gland”

Located at the base of the brain
That functions as fast as the train.



Alienated into two divisions

Having special missions and vision

First, posterior, called also neurohypophysis
                      Second, anterior, called also adenohypophysis.


 

         ANTERIOR pituitary gland!

         What is this kind of gland?
          What hormone does it secrete?

          And what do they stimulate?



Controlled by a specific substance

In hypothalamus, nerve cell is in charge

 Calling it as Releasing factors

That act as best as actors









Giving you the first one,

Hormone that stimulates adrenal gland

Also identified as corticotrophin

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone, is on the list!




Comprises also Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone,  
 Excites thyroid gland, oozing its own hormone

Prolactin is in the street
 Producing the milk on the breast







That newborn baby always desires

to be able to grow, that every mommy aspires

Speaking of growing

Growth hormone is the one who is calling





It is made of protein

Other call it as somatotropin.

Over stimulation causes gigantism

While under stimulation causes dwarfism.























Collectively identified as Gonadotrophins

Responsible in sexual characteristics

Progesterone for females

And testosterone for males.





              Hormone that is so important 
           That every girl and boy want
          Luteinizing and Follicle Stimulating
    The hormone that treat.





Melanocyte-stimulating hormone at last

Functioning like a bomb on a blast

Cleavage product of proopiomelanocortin

Recognized as intermedins.



This is the anterior pituitary

Significant in our body

So have a healthy life

To have a better life!


video
                                                            Click on the video to listen